No, those who are under the DACA program do not find eligibility to apply for the health care program. All those immigrants who are waiting for passage to the DREAM Act will have to wait for health care permission too.
Is there anything like a five-year residency requirement for immigrants to be able to receive Medicaid?
All those immigrants with low incomes and who are eligible to receive the Medicaid provision should have lived in the country for 5 years to apply for Medicaid. Those immigrants who are eligible for refugee status can qualify for the provision of Medicaid without waiting for the five year interval. Under the Obamacare program Medicaid eligibility is extended in all states to people earning up to 138% of the federal poverty level, about $15,800 for an individual and $33,000 for a family of four. Around 57% of uninsured non-citizens meet this income requirement.
What about the penalties for legal immigrants who are not members of the new system and have no health insurance benefits?
Yes, those who not participate in the new system and moreover, decide to remain uninsured are subject to paying penalties in the Internal Revenue Service.